Soft X-rays are fired at the sample and photoelectrons are ejected. These photoelectrons carry information about the elements present in the sample and their chemical environment.
Conventional XPS is performed under high vacuum and so is a post-mortem technique. NAP-XPS overcomes this limitation by placing the sample inside a special high pressure cell connected to the analyser through several layers of differential pumping. This means that surfaces can be studied in-situ during chemical reactions; for example following the surface chemistry of a catalyst while it is operating.
In the NAP cell
Analysis of samples in the presence of a gas (or mixture of gases) up to a total pressure of 25 mbar. Currently available gases: CO2, H2O, O2, H2, CO, NH3. Other gases may be possible by request.
Heating/cooling of samples from ~ 0ºC to 700ºC during analysis
Standard UHV sample prep (sputter/anneal cycles)
Cluster-ion sputtering (depth profiling of fragile samples such as polymers)
Dedicated chamber for evaporation of organics etc.
LEED (low-energy electron diffraction)
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